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This article describes the context of the studies carried out on Dutch migrants, at the request of a number of Language Attrition Researchers who have plans to re-visit the population I investigated.
Context I did much of the research work on Dutch migrants as a part-time student: on returning to the Netherlands I got a 0-hour contract with the dept of Womens Studies i Nij ege Radboud University, and later a job as lecturer in business English at HAN University of Applied Sciences. New perspectives merged. My research here became limited to investigating the effects of certain teaching methods on proficiency in English and in developing teaching tools like www.
Ambitions remain though funding limited. For a few years now I have worked as IT projects manager, writing IT and education policies, working as IT conference organiser, alumni officer for HAN laboratory studies, software writer and internationalization support staff in laboratory education.
Some teaching. And have not been back downunder since The plans are there though, so to help others as well I delved into the past. Origins of research: strategies for lexical gaps Compensatory strategies — communication strategies: attempts by language learners to bridge lexical gaps in conversations.
L2 learners were observed to try a range of language activities in various contexts, resulting in taxonomies of strategies. With Eric Kellerman we started on Dutch learners of English. Studies in in cognitive psychology pointed to a common root for communication strategies in general problem solving strategies, where personal and social preference in combination with the linguistic properties of the lexical gap interact.
Perceived language distance also affected the tendency to move to L1 if perceived close or attempt solely in the target L2 if perceived large. Staff from the Max Planck Institute of Psycholinguistics and the dept of psychology at Radboud University were quite helpful in suggesting the best sources. On completion in , I investigated the options to try more detailed research in other language combinations, as well as replicate the study in a context where English learners of Dutch could be 1 observed.
Research grants were applied for, and both Canadian and Australian professors showed interest as well as offered limited funding. As the Australian European Award allowed the longest period abroad this was then accepted for studies with Professor Clyne at Monash University.
Monash research On arrival, Dr Michael Clyne pointed out that he thought more sociolinguistic mechanism were at the root of the communication strategies, and he suggested looking into the Dutch community in Melbourne for the data.
Literature on sociolinguistics brought different perspectives into the issue, including the role of Frisian and Limburg languages for Dutch migrants, as oppose to regular Dutch. The version of Dutch spoken in the west of the Netherlands seemed to be dropped at the most alarming rate, as opposed to local Limburg dialect and to Frisian.
Speakers of the latter adhered more to these languages as part of their identity, more like other migrants in Australia. Not only 2nd and 3rd generation Australian learners of Dutch, but also former native speakers of Dutch were observed to use strategies in attempts to reawaken their disused mother tongue. A number of interviews were conducted with a range of migrants, both at the annual Holland Fair in the Melbourne showgrounds, the Dandenong Tulip Festival as well as in the Victorian School of Languages.
The numbers of interviewees, however, was too small, spread out to widely and their backgrounds to diverse to make much more than anecdotal evidence. Literature studies from other emigrant countries also suggested the Dutch from Randstad areas in the Netherlands were most radical in dropping their native tongue already during their transport, and enforcing the host languages within the family and at home.
No other emigrant groups did so to the same extent at the same speed. Clyne suggested I look more into the reasons why Dutch was abandoned, as such could result in a paper more quickly than the initial goal of large scale investigation of communication strategies.
Other communities in Australia were far less reluctant to shed their mother tongue within the confines of home. Work with the Dutch Courier monthly and editors of club newsletters who all published in their best English, and interviews with the last Dutch migrant officers who had helped the Dutch migrants in their first years, suggested that Dutch migrants were very obedient as well as practical about their language.
Besides, with housing shortage and poverty in the Netherlands, and the threat of a Cold War there was nothing to go back to. An old language which resembled the Nazi language had little prestige. The list above suggested that other cultures had responded differently to the migration experience of the Dutch, and that the Dutch in other emigrant countries like USA, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand responded similarly. Hofstede s esea h o ulti atio als i deed suppo ted the ideas that the ig a t ge e atio had adopted their Dutch language as a coat, and by simply putting on a different coat they had learned to adapt to their customers.
Other migrant groups, who see their mother tongue as a key element of being ethnically distinct, were more reluctant to adopt other languages. Melbourne research When scholarship money as about to run out, the University of Melbourne dept of linguistic , which hosted a small Dutch Language and Literature section, was contacted for possible PhD funding. They offered one on the proviso that I do some work in the Dutch department as well as adopt a more linguistic angle: investigate if there are certain word types or syntax types that were more prone to linguistic difficulties in the speech of migrants, and examine if psychological roots may be at the cause.
Were certain Dutch structures replaced by English, and others too difficult to compile? I therefore started to take classes in psycholinguistics and experimental psychology, and for administrative reasons transferred later to the department of psychology with Dr Holmes. His did meant passing the 1st year Psych courses minimally, and some teaching. A number of guest lectures, and connections with Eric Kellerman and colleagues working in psycholinguistics indicated that collecting experimental data could be useful to address the question on the nature of loss: if these experiments could highlight the nature and level of problems in the speech of migrants, such could then be used to identify common patterns.
Loss could be memory loss, difficult to retrieve the buried information, or interference from English that impeded speech processing in Dutch. Or loss as an illustration of an identity that the migrant did not want to associate with anymore, or as a mark of looking cool and interesting… these were some of the theories I was told.
Experiments in cognition, sociolinguistic interview Literature research, psychology and classes and some work as research assistant resulted in a number of experiments that were programmed into a portable 20 kg IBM computer to be conducted on Dutch migrants-who-had-not-used-Dutch-since-arrival. If subjects no longer 3 could identify either words, then Dutch words would no longer be in memory.
If they did recognise some, however, and if function words were identified correctly, but content words not then Dutch grammar was more intact. Why was Dutch dropped? Could we compare the overall competence levels amongst the range of subjects in our experiment, and find factors that impeded or promoted loss of Dutch?
This would generate communication strategies, as well as bring along childhood memories on a language no longer used. Would we again find similar patterns as in Dutch learners of English in ? Why so many tests? Subjects lived all over greater Melbourne, and pilot testing suggested that once visited the interest in Dutch would re-awaken as did efforts to look up o e s oots again.
Subjects would not actively look to participate i the stud , ut ould e do ed elati es a d eigh ou s. I was advised to visit them one for a longer period, gather as much data as possible, and perhaps return in a few years.
The focus was on Dutch migrants from the western Randstad region: they were most likely not to be in touch with their native tongue. Exceptions were Frisian and Limburg subjects: they had never shed their linguistic roots as the este Dut hies had do e from the Randstad areas, and had always clung on to their roots.
Level of education may have also had an effect as higher educated Dutch tended to have better incomes and thus more opportunities to travel back. And find ways to keep in touch. The data collection indeed resulted in long term contact with the community, both for me as for many subjects visited.
The Dutch roots proved stronger than migrants had thought, and with the reduced pressure to assimilate many subjects took up travelling to Holland, visiting their roots here and whilst in Melbourne look up other Dutchies.
The long-term contacts were kept alive on return to the Netherlands, and students in e. In addition, 4 some migrants visited took up re-learning their L1 again, and some even returned to the Netherlands for their final months.
Children and grandchildren stayed in touch, and reported that their parents at old age increasingly returned in their minds to Dutch and their old culture, and that these aging Dutch were quite happy again in retirement homes like Beatrix Village and Juliana Village run by DutchCare in Australia.
Times were changing. It no longer became taboo to be ethnic in Australia, and the numbers of 2nd and 3rd generation students of Dutch increased. Why so few subjects in our study? With limited funding, I had to take on side-jobs like teaching Dutch to high school children, organising Dutch exams for language schools, working in catering, retail and as a research assistant, as co-editor of the Dutch Courier, presenter in a Dutch Community Help Line and so on. English language articles in migrant journals for social workers, radio interviews on SBS, newspaper articles, approaching strangers on migrant fairs, German migrants who knew Dutchies, and using networks at university took time.
Most rewarding was finding friends of friends who knew someone with Dutch roots, who then asked this person to volunteer for a few hours. Out of curiosity a number took part, people who had disappeared into the woods and had very little contact with other Dutch let alone with the Dutch language.
At the same time, the snow-ball method proved counter-productive as more and more people e a e i ol ed, thus a ake i g do a t Dut h ig a ts efo e I ould ea h the.
It took time to reach genuine subjects, and the Melbourne supervisor grew impatient and decided to stop the data collection stage and to start investigating the raw materials.
It son emerged that data analyses would be complex with the heterogeneous group and the rich data sets from the experiments. What were some findings? On the basis of the data from the questionnaire and the Cloze and Fluency tasks the informants could be atego ised i to a g oup alled You g , o sisti g of ig a ts ho a i ed i Aust alia efo e the age of.
U fo tu atel ho e e , the at h as o l lose as flue t ili guals a i ed i Aust alia at a slightl olde age tha the ust , disfluent bilinguals, with more education in Dutch. This seemed to have nourished their contact with Dutch and The Netherlands, and hence their better fluency in the language.
Analysis of the results from the picture naming task showed that frequency of occurrence in Dutch was a prime factor in determining the success with which a Dutch word was recalled. It was also found that longer words were less likely to be recalled than shorter ones, and that words similar to English in phonological form were more successfully recalled than Dutch words that did not resemble the English word for the same picture.
A further finding was that compound words were recalled with great difficulty, especially when their components were not matched in the English translation equivalents.
Subjects were on the whole better than expected in recalling the target Dutch word, and as a result analysis of the options chosen in the recognition session was problematic due to a very small number of errors made in the naming session. The trend however is the same as above.
When the different performances of the g oups e e o t asted, o l ua titati e diffe e es e e fou d: the ou g a d ust g oups of bilinguals made more, but similar errors in recalling and recognising Dutch words for the images.
The group of monolingual native speakers of English did not respond significantly differently to the task of deciding whether a function or content- word stimulus as a o d o ot. The e as o effe t fo o d lass: B adle s lai that retrieval differs for different type was thus not supported.
For the bilingual subjects the patterns were very complicated. Analysis of the reaction times to words in the Dutch session over all subjects revealed significant effects for the length of the words, which interacted with the word type. This effect was similar in English. Computation also revealed that there was a significant difference in the way in which the groups of subjects responded, but again no word- type effect was found in either the Dutch or English session.
The interviews and re-told stories of the 88 bilinguals were orthographically transcribed, together with the spontaneous verbal reports which the subjects supplied during and after the tasks.
Analysis has been planned but not conducted on the type of strategies subjects used to recall a Dutch word in context, or the type of words which were problematic due to lack of time.
Neither has an analysis been conducted into the specific linguistic structures present and absent, and the possible differences between the four groups of subjects. What questions remained? Despite the fact that the experiments point to the influence of similarity, frequency, length and transparency on the retrieval of Dutch words, any conclusions regarding the extent to which the subjects Dutch has been eroded can not yet be drawn, due to the absence of results from the naming experiment by a sizeable group of monolingual controls.
Unfortunately the number of volunteer participants in was not large enough to enable carrying out the planned design of involving a sub- group of more fluent bilingual migrants as a control.
Subsequent efforts to contact a sufficient number of fluent Dutch- Australian volunteers in Melbourne were unsuccessful, primarily because no money was available to pay for the necessary publicity, the transport of the test material to and from their homes, some compensation for the time spent on the tests, and the tapes needed. The results from the lexical decision task are problematic for a similar reason.
Due to the absence of results from Dutch monolinguals it cannot be ascertained whether the patterns for Dutch differ for bilinguals and monolinguals. In order to be able to determine the nature and extent of mother- tongue attrition in the migrants, it would be ideal if fluent native speakers of Dutch residing in The Netherlands and in Australia could be presented with the same recall and recognition and lexical decision tasks. Results based on Dutch subjects in The Netherlands can then be used to investigate whether the Australian results are due to the nature of Dutch here, and the data from the fluent bilinguals in Melbourne would supply information regarding the extent to hi h la guage att itio has e oded Dut h.
A less pressing purpose for which financial aid is needed is the coding of the transcriptions. Ideally a semi- automatic coding of the data as developed by Manfred Pienemann and colleages in Sydney would 6 provide an instrument for measuring the linguistic development in the corpus.
In absence of such sophisticated machinery at my disposal it is suggested another person in addition to the experimenter is employed who will tag the corpus for occurrences of English function and content words, the frequencies of types of syntactic structures used, a d he e a d hat t pes of o pe sato st ategies a e used. Dete ini g the Li guisti Att i utes of La guage Att itio. The Loss of Language Skills. Newbury House, Rowley Mass. Bradley D.
B adle D. Nieu Holla ds o Dou le Dut h. Dut h Studies p Durgunoglu A. Test Diffe e es i A essi g Bili gual e o. Jou al of Memory and Language 26 p Fishman J. Mouton, The Hague Own publications: Taalverlies: g een vergeten onderzoek.
Dutch Courier, June, Reasons for language loss amongst the Dutch. Dutch Courier October, Dutch Courier November, Tips voor tweetalig opvoeden. Dutch Courier January, Nederlands en Dialecten in Nieuw Nederland. Veldeke Lovejoy ed. De eerste Man. Raffia 5. SEW, Tijdschrift voor Europees en economisch recht Het enige Nederlandstalige tijdschrift dat elf keer per jaar actuele ontwikkelingen rond Europees en economisch recht brengt.
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